Otherwise known as China's One-Child Policy.
In the 1950's Mao Tse-Tung, architect and founding father of the People's Republic of China, told his people to have many children to strengthen their country. From his urging the population spurt cause the government in the 1970s to be worried that China would be unable to feed her citizens.
In 1978 the policy was introduced and was to go into effect in 1979 for all first-born children. The Chinese government created the policy to help out with social, economic and environmental issues. Officials suggest that it prevented 400 million births from 1979 to 2011. This policy restricted married urban couples to having only one child. There were exceptions to the rule however such as: rural couples, ethnic minorities, only child parents, foreigners, and areas in Hong Kong and Macau. Breaking this policy means a fine of what would equal almost three years pay, and no bonuses at work; pressures to abort and possibly even forced sterilization; health care taken away and having to pay for both kid's education. At this time their government plans to keep the policy in effect until 2015, as it was only meant to be a one-generation policy.